The project focuses on the habitat complex of lagoons, salt meadows, dunes and others. Read here more about these landscapes and the species in it.
Following the landscapes with their habitats are described. [We have added a number code which allows scientific readers and those familiar with the EU-Habitats Directive to connect the description with the relevant habitats and coding system of Habitats Directive, Annex I. See also Chapter Natura 2000 for more information on Habitats Directive].
We thank the BfN (Agency for Nature conservation) for citing from their book „Das europäische Schutzgebietssystem Natura 2000”.
Lagoons are coastal water bodies separated from the sea water. Sometimes a natural connection is permanently open, sometimes only temporarely, eg. through winter flood, sometimes no connection is existing at all. These separations could be natural or man-made. This influences of course the grade of salinity: higher or lower then the sea water. The water level usually differs throughout the year, depending on sea water or rain water inflow. Many birds use lagoons and the adjoining areas for resting and foraging. The rather lower salt level makes this habitat quite interesting for plants and animals.
Zone between water and land (summary: 1110, 1210, 1220, 1310)
Waves define the shifting and flexible border line between land and sea. Depending on their force of creativity they change this area rather frequently or even only in high floods in some winters. Depending on these forces plants and animals can settle down in this “front-line” area. We can distinguish:
Sandbanks which are only slightly and rarely covered by sea water. Through current and waves of the sea these sandbanks are under frequent changes and modification. Hardly any plants settle here, but birds find good fodder in the sand
The zone between waves and beach is a place for short time specialists. Those often use the deposition of sea tang, indifferent on the ground material of sand or gravel. Beside some rather unobtrusive plants, some insects as beetles and small crabs find a temporary home here, which of course pleases birds for foraging
When waves not reach places frequently and not recreate it every winter perennial plants can settle here. Still the influence of salt is a limiting factor for some. This is the place to find Sea kale (Crambe maritima) and other rare palnts
Muddy flats are sometimes settled by pioneers as Salicornia europaea. Typical is still a regular flooding, therefore we find only salt specialists here. Although a typical phenomena of the North Sea Wadden landscape this habitat also occurs at the Baltic Sea.
Atlantic salt meadows (1330)
These salt meadows are regularly or rarely covered by salty sea water. Only some plants can cope with these circumstances. Specialists in this are e.g. Sea aster (Tripolium pannonicum, Syn.: Aster tripolium), Sea wormwood (Artemisia maritima) also some sledges and reed. Depending on the intensity of salt water coverage experts separate upper and lower salt meadow. The upper salt meadow could even include special ant hills. Some birds use these meadows for breeding, some only for resting/foraging. Quite a few insects and small creatures have made their home here in the nutrition rich soil or above on the plants. In addition the plants provide seeds and leaves feeding birds and youngsters.
Dunes (summary: 2110, 2120, *2130, 2140, *2250)
Dunes are a mountain of sand, designed by Wind and Water. Scientists separates between Embryonic shifting -, shifting dunes with Ammophila, Fixed dunes, Decalcified fixed dunes and coastal dunes with Juniperus. Characteristic is the interconnection between
- different vegetation
- Nutrition and water below surface
- Reduced mobility due to increasing vegetation on the sand mount.
Dry habitats (summary: 5130, *6120, *6210, 6280, *7210)
These different types dry grasslands are typical habitat for Sweden and Baltic states. Here they indicate calcareous grassland, only low rainfall. Often shrubs grows more and more when traditional grazing schemes by sheep or cattle stops. Accompanying shrubs are junipers, rose and Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa). Sometimes also heath appears. Often the soil is not totally covered by vegetation and offers bare soil for seeds and open soil depending animals (for hibernation, reproduction or other needs) These dry habitats offers special insects as grasshoppers, cicada, true bugs (Heteroptera) a place to live.
…and others, to be extended and completed.