LIFE-Project: Rehabilitation of the Baltic coastal lagoon habitat complex (Denmark) auf einer größeren Karte anzeigen
Hjarnø is a moraine island situated in Horsens Fiord. The island is only 3.2 km2, most of which consists of cultivated farmland and more or less intensively grazed coastal lagoons and Atlantic salt meadows. Within the project area, a coastal meadow and the eastern coastal lagoon could provide habitat for a population of up to 50 calling males of natterjack toads. For this reason, the lagoon is cleaned up for mud and rank vegetation and proper grazing installed.
Endelave, a moraine island situated in the southern part of Kattegat, is 13.2 km2. The island contains several valuable areas with coastal lagoons, Atlantic salt meadows, bogs, meadows and lakes. Cattle grazing are reintroduced on the island for several reasons, e.g. improving living conditions for meadow birds and natterjack toads.
DK-03 Halk Nor
Halk Nor is a brackish lagoon on the south part of Haderslev Næs. A large part of the site is a military shooting range. The site is the result of gradual deposition of sand by the sea and it contains a number of shallow lagoons. Furthermore there are a number of water-filled grenade craters. West of Halk Nor there are several brackish ponds, which are occasionally flooded by sea water. There is a very small breeding population of natterjack toads at the coastal lagoon Fuglsø, which is also an important breeding and staging area for waders. This site has not been grazed regularly for several years prior to this project.
Bågø is an island in Lillebælt with several coastal lagoons along the south, west and north coasts. The area contains large, adjoining salt meadows with extensive zonal vegetation. During the last decades large parts of the meadows were overgrowing due to cessation of grazing and haymaking, however, recent grazing arrangement have already had a positive impact on breeding sites for meadow birds and avocets. It is the hope that further improvements of the grazing will attract breeding pairs of ruff. A lack of suitable breeding ponds constitutes the greatest risk for the existing natterjack toad population (as well as other threatened amphibians), which are the reason why these are established during the project.
DK-05 Urehoved, Dejrø
The project site Urehoved – Dejrø consists of two separated sites: 1) The small hilly island Dejrø with grazed meadows, a large coastal lagoon and a few ponds, and 2) The grassland part of the peninsula Urehoved, with partly overgrown salt meadows and two prominent coastal lagoons. Both sites are situated within the South Funen archipelago. On Dejrø the population of green toads will benefit from restoration and creation of breeding sites. Furthermore, with sufficient grazing, the site could be important for colonial breeders. In Urehoved re-establishment of cattle grazing is vital in order to keep the high diversity of the salt meadow vegetation, as well as attracting avocet, tern, meadow birds and maybe even ruff. Also in order to make the area suitable for the green toad and natterjack toad, the vegetation has to be grazed much shorter around the possible breeding ponds and it is also necessary to create large well-grazed meadow areas.
Halmø is a morraine island situated within the South Funen archipelago. The project site consists of coastal lagoons surrounded by Atlantic salt meadows. Due to lack of management the coastal lagoons has become overgrown and silted up. Lack of suitable water-bodies for breeding and large meadow areas with low vegetation, has been one of the main reasons for the decline of natterjack toads and green toads on Halmø. Nevertheless, the large shallow sun-exposed lagoon on the west coast of the island has a great potential as the main breeding ground for the toads. Introduction of grazing will not only benefit the toads but also terns, meadow birds and avocets as well as safeguarding diverse plant communities along the salt meadows.
DK-07 Store Egholm
The project site is an island consisting partly of a natural wet salt meadow with several smaller and one large coastal lagoon and partly higher grassland on former cultivated fields. The island was inhabited and farming took place for approximately 40 years in the second half of the 19th century. The island was well grazed until recently, but the salt meadows are now slowly overgrowing. Store Egholm is located within the South Funen archipelago. Lack of suitable breeding waters is the main problem for the green toad, and thus should be established. Re-establishment of good grazing agreements and cattle grazing is of major importance to safeguard this important breeding site for meadowbirds in the future.
The peninsula Monnet is one of the largest salt meadows (130 ha) in eastern Denmark, and is located within the South Funen archipelago. The meadows have natural topography and hydrology, with a large system of gullies and pools and ant hillocks are widely distributed. The meadows are grazed but due to a declining and now (2005-2006) fairly low grazing pressure overgrowing is gradually taking place locally. It is essential to secure the survival of the small isolated natterjack toad population, and maintain the increasing population of green toad, which is why grazing should be intensified in the central part of the meadow. Increased grazing would also create a more proper breeding habitat for the endangered Baltic dunlin, for avocet and for most of the meadowbirds in general.
Hjelmshoved is located within in the South Funen archipelago. The northern half of the Hjelmshoved and a strip along the south-coast are salt meadows that have not been grazed or mown for many years and in general they are completely overgrown. Locally around a coastal lagoon to the north, there is still well developed, fairly short salt meadow vegetation. It is supposed that an introduction of grazing will increase the number of green toads significantly. Grazing of the lower parts of the salt meadow will keep the proper openness of the habitat for breeding meadowbirds and colonial breeders. Grazing of the salt meadow is necessary for conservation of the complete salt meadow zonation on the island.
DK-10 Store Vrøj and Krageø
The project site Store Vrøj and Krageø are two former islands connected to the mainland by dikes. . The project site consists of coastal lagoons surrounded by primarily Atlantic salt meadows in a very poor management condition. The grazing performed at this site are primarily directed at preserving and improving the living conditions for the rich plant diversity. As a side-effect the general diversity in the coastal lagoon habitat complex will increase, and some regionally vulnerable species of beach and meadow living birds, e.g. oystercatcher, common ringed plover and redshank, are expected to extend their breeding distribution and numbers.
Korevlerne is situated within Sejerø Bugt and Saltbæk Vig. Korevlerne consists of two narrow sandy spits that protect a coastal lagoon, which is connected to the sea. The project site is in the centre of a popular vacation area. Creation of areas with restricted access (no access in the breeding season of the birds 16th of March to 25th of July) keeping visitors away from the widest coastal meadows and the shores and the water area of northern part of the coastal lagoon may allow that a few pairs of avocets can breed on the islet and raise their chicks along the shores of the lagoon. Grazing of the meadows and grazing, cutting or burning the small islet in the lagoon is needed in order to achieve this.
Saltholm is the largest continuous area of salt meadows in the Eastern part of Denmark. The site consists of the island Saltholm and the surrounding areas with shallow water. Saltholm is located in Øresund. The island is mostly covered with Atlantic salt meadows and with numerous coastal lagoons. Saltholm is probably one on the most important sites for water birds in Denmark. During winter and especially the migration periods, huge numbers of water birds are resting in the shallow sea surrounding the island. Two species of salt tolerant toads are the only amphibians on Saltholm: the green toad and the natterjack toad.
The Ulvshale project site is at the south western part of the peninsula Ulvshale, Horsnæs, which is a large Atlantic salt meadow area. It is expected that wading birds and meadow birds will benefit from grazing of the area, as well as increased areas of wetland. Furthermore, it will enhance breeding possibilities od the natterjack toad, perhaps also the green toad.
The area consists of two parts: Hyllekrog, a 5 km long spit with a fairly steep sandy beach-wall with dunes to the south towards the sea and a partly grazed salt meadow of varying width (from 25 m to some 300 m) at the inner side to the north and Saksfjed, a polder area extensively grazed, with huge clay ponds (made when the dike was constructed) and extensive reed beds. Wet meadow is in short supply in the area, and blocking of ditches on Hyllekrog will improve the living conditions for meadowbirds significantly. Breeding shorebirds respond positively to a rise in ground water level, because their food items will become more accessible. Creation of newly dug freshwater ponds will enhance breeding possibilities of the green toad.